International Council on Mining & Metals

ICMM has commissioned this series of publications to describe mining and metals’ contribution to sustainable development. It seeks to set out some of the more important benefits, costs, risks and responsibilities related to mining and metals in today’s world.

The extraction and processing of minerals and metals to provide goods and services essential to human society is as old as human development itself. Minerals and metals have brought huge benefits to society – they are vital commodities that serve as a foundation to society’s material quality of life. In today’s world, population growth, urbanization, social and economic development and even demands for a green (or low carbon) economy are all contributing to an increase in the demand for minerals and metals. However meeting that demand and achieving the benefits comes at a cost.

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