IPIECA is the global oil and gas industry association for social and environmental issues. This publication has been updated in response to the IFC’s new performance standards (2012) and also includes an expanded ‘useful resources’ section. The document contains an overview of Indigenous Peoples and the policy and regulatory context relevant to the sector’s interaction with them, as well as a summary of some of the specific issues for oil and gas companies to consider when operating in areas with Indigenous Peoples (set around the three themes of consultation and engagement, key issues to manage, and benefits sharing). The document concludes with a summary of emerging good practice.