Michael Cernea presents a theoretical model for involuntary resettlement that highlights the intrinsic risks that cause impoverishment through displacement. The purpose of the model is two-fold (a) to explain what happens during forced displacements, and (b) to create a theoretical and safeguarding tool capable of guiding policy, planning, and actual development programs to counteract these adverse effects. While this paper is not mining-specific, it is a key piece in the displacement and resettlement literature.